There is no true value of anything: data has meaning based on the operational definition used to calculate the data.
Walter Shewhart’s Statistical Method from the Viewpoint of Quality Control, forward by W. Edwards Deming:
Dr. Deming’s ideas on the theory of knowledge are the least understood and least seen in other management systems. The importance of understanding what data does, and does not tell you, is at least somewhat acknowledged in other management system but is often not found much in the actual practice of management. The execution often glosses over the importance of actually understanding statistics versus using formulas. Just using formulas is dangerous. It may be inconvenient but learning about the traps we can fall into in using data is important.
How often do you see the operational definition used to calculate the data you see with the data you are provided?
via: Shewhart, Deming and Data by Malcolm Chisholm